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When California Gov. Gavin Newsom in July announced revamped restrictions on worship, churches statewide resisted, drawing the attention of pastors nationwide as they prepare for a renewed struggle over church closures.

Newsom’s restrictions require all churches to suspend singing during services and most to hold their churches outside.

Citing already burdensome restrictions placed on them in the spring, many church leaders refused to comply, most notably John MacArthur, a celebrity pastor who declared in a Sunday sermon that “Christ, not Caesar, is head of the church.”

MacArthur’s sermon won widespread approval from many evangelicals. Greg Locke, a Tennessee pastor with a large social media following, in a video this week cited MacArthur to make clear to his congregation that he has no plans to close again if shutdowns return to the state.

“Churches should be open,” he said. “There should be no excuses. I will go to jail before I close my church.”

Locke added that his church, Global Vision Bible Church, which resisted previous pleas in March from Gov. Bill Lee to close, was not requiring social distancing or mask-wearing from any of its members.

Locke said in a statement that his decisions arose from a refusal to “live in constant fear and media hysteria.”

A series of churches in California sued Newsom after he banned indoor services. Others have outright ignored the orders, holding demonstrations to protest alleged attacks on religious liberty. Some counties, such as San Diego, have retaliated by promising to crack down on churches that violate Newsom’s orders.

The legal battle for churches’ ability to remain open has developed significantly since March, when nearly every state required churches to shut down or severely restrict the number of people at in-person services. The first few churches sued on the grounds that they should be allowed to hold drive-in services. The next round focused on in-person services. Several interventions from the Justice Department and President Trump emboldened churches in their cause.

Two churches, one in California and one in Nevada, appealed to the Supreme Court for an emergency injunction exempting them from restrictions. Both were rejected. A third church from Illinois plans to send its case to the court in early August. Religious liberty advocates expect a favorable outcome.

More recently, churches have cited a so-called double standard in the way that governors treat worship in the pews compared with how they treat protest in the streets. In New Jersey, the last state to remove coronavirus restrictions, three churches in a lawsuit accused Gov. Phil Murphy of favoring the cause of racial justice over that of religious exercise.

“This whole scheme is preposterous,” wrote Christopher Ferrara, the attorney for the churches. “America has never seen anything like it. Murphy is making up rules as he goes along. Meanwhile, almost no one in New Jersey is dying on account of the virus.”

Ferrara also criticized the governor for a mask mandate, which he said impeded the practice of worship.

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TikTok and Its Employees Prepare to Fight Trump Over App Ban

By MATT O'BRIEN, AP Technology Writer

TikTok and its U.S. employees are planning to take President Donald Trump's administration to court over his sweeping order to ban the popular video app, according to a lawyer preparing one of the lawsuits.

The employees' legal challenge to Trump's executive order will be separate from a pending lawsuit from the company that owns the app, though both will argue that the order is unconstitutional, said Mike Godwin, an internet policy lawyer representing the employees.

Trump last week ordered sweeping but vague bans on dealings with the Chinese owners of TikTok and messaging app WeChat, saying they are a threat to U.S. national security, foreign policy and the economy. The TikTok order would take effect in September, but it remains unclear what it will mean for the apps' 100 million U.S. users, many of them teenagers or young adults who use it to post and watch short-form videos.

It's also unclear if it will make it illegal for TikTok to pay its roughly 1,500 workers in the U.S., which is why some of them came to Godwin for help, he said. The order would prohibit “any transaction by any person” with TikTok and its Chinese parent company ByteDance.

“Employees correctly recognize that their jobs are in danger and their payment is in danger right now,” Godwin said.

TikTok declined to comment on pending legal actions. It said in a statement Friday that it was “shocked by the recent Executive Order, which was issued without any due process.”

The Fifth and 14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution safeguard life, liberty and property from arbitrary government action lacking “due process of law.”

Microsoft is in talks to buy parts of TikTok, in a potential sale that’s being forced under Trump’s threat of a ban.

White House press secretary Kayleigh McEnany defended Trump’s TikTok and WeChat orders Thursday, telling reporters he was exercising his emergency authority under a 1977 law enabling the president to regulate international commerce to address unusual threats.

“The administration is committed to protecting the American people from all cyber threats and these apps collect significant amounts of private data on users,” said McEnany, adding that the Chinese government can access and use such data.

TikTok said it spent nearly a year trying to engage in “good faith” with the U.S. government to address these concerns.

“What we encountered instead was that the Administration paid no attention to facts, dictated terms of an agreement without going through standard legal processes, and tried to insert itself into negotiations between private businesses,” the company’s statement said.

Godwin said he was retained by Patrick Ryan, who joined TikTok from Google earlier this year as a technical program manager. Ryan posted a public fundraising pitch on GoFundMe this week to raise money for attorneys who can “fight this unconstitutional taking.”

“This is unprecedented,” Ryan wrote. “And it’s frankly really uncool.”

Unlike other Chinese tech companies targeted by Trump, such as telecom giant Huawei, TikTok's widespread popularity among Americans adds a layer of complexity to its legal and political challenges. The looming ban has annoyed TikTok users, some of them Trump supporters like Pam Graef of Metairie, Louisiana.

The 53-year-old fitness instructor found nearly instant TikTok fame after downloading the app this summer and posting a video of herself dancing frenetically in a kitchen as someone pretending to be her embarrassed daughter shouts that she's doing it wrong. The video has nearly 3.5 million views.

“I don’t want it to be banned. It’s just a blast,” Graef said. “It’s a way for me to promote my virtual training and virtual classes.”

She said Trump won’t lose her vote over this, but she doesn’t understand all the fuss about the app’s Chinese ownership. “What are they gaining by spying on us?” Graef said. “We’re just doing stupid videos and having fun.”

The Wall Street Journal reported on Tuesday that, until late last year, the TikTok app was able to track users of Android phones without their consent by collecting unique phone identifiers in a way that skirted privacy safeguards set by Google. TikTok responded that the technique it used is a common way to prevent fraud and said it no longer collects the unique identifier.

The company has repeatedly said that the way it collects data is typical for thousands of mobile apps. “We have made clear that TikTok has never shared user data with the Chinese government, nor censored content at its request,” said its statement last week.

Trump's actions follow the lead of India, which has expressed similar security concerns and earlier this summer banned TikTok and dozens of other Chinese apps amid a military standoff between the two countries.

Godwin said the employees' legal challenge will be focused on worker rights, not on the national security claims underlying Trump's order.

The civil rights lawyer, known in early internet culture for coining “Godwin's law,” which posits that all online debates will eventually devolve into the use of Nazi analogies, said employees can't afford to wait.

“We have to proceed very quickly,” he said Thursday. "If we wait around for the order to be enforced, which it will be on September 20, then the workers will lose their chances to be paid.”

___

Aamer Madhani contributed to this report from Washington.

Copyright 2020 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

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